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How to Cite Your Resources: Chicago style
This guide will help with citing your sources and creating a bibliography.
The Chicago Manual of Style by University of Chicago Press Editorial StaffTechnologies may change, but the need for clear and accurate communication never goes out of style. That is why for more than one hundred years The Chicago Manual of Style has remained the definitive guide for anyone who works with words. In the seven years since the previous edition debuted, we have seen an extraordinary evolution in the way we create and share knowledge. This seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style has been prepared with an eye toward how we find, create, and cite information that readers are as likely to access from their pockets as from a bookshelf. It offers updated guidelines on electronic workflows and publication formats, tools for PDF annotation and citation management, web accessibility standards, and effective use of metadata, abstracts, and keywords. It recognizes the needs of those who are self-publishing or following open access or Creative Commons publishing models. The citation chapters reflect the ever-expanding universe of electronic sources--including social media posts and comments, private messages, and app content--and also offer updated guidelines on such issues as DOIs, time stamps, and e-book locators. Other improvements are independent of technological change. The chapter on grammar and usage includes an expanded glossary of problematic words and phrases and a new section on syntax as well as updated guidance on gender-neutral pronouns and bias-free language. Key sections on punctuation and basic citation style have been reorganized and clarified. To facilitate navigation, headings and paragraph titles have been revised and clarified throughout. And the bibliography has been updated and expanded to include the latest and best resources available. This edition continues to reflect expert insights gathered from Chicago's own staff and from an advisory board of publishing experts from across the profession. It also includes suggestions inspired by emails, calls, and even tweets from readers. No matter how much the means of communication change, The Chicago Manual of Style remains the ultimate resource for those who care about getting the details right.
is used in most literature, arts, and humanities courses. These fields place emphasis on authorship. Because of this emphasis on the author of the work, most MLA citation involves recording the author’s name prominently in the in-text citation with no mention of the date. The author’s name is also the first to appear in the “Works Cited” page at the end of the essay.
is used most often in psychology, education, nursing, and other social sciences. These fields place emphasis on the date a work is created. Because of this emphasis on the date the work was created, the date will appear prominently in the citations. The in-text citation will include the date. The date is also placed immediately after the author's name in the each citation on the Reference page.